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Water Pump

Heat engines generate mechanical power by extracting energy from heat flows, much as a water wheel extracts mechanical power from a flow of mass falling through a distance. Engines are not perfectly efficient, so more heat energy enters the engine than comes out as mechanical power; the difference is waste heat and must be removed. Internal combustion engines remove waste heat through cool intake air, hot exhaust gases, and explicit engine cooling.

Engines with higher efficiency have more energy leave as mechanical motion and less as waste heat. So, all heat engines need cooling to operate.

Cooling is also needed because high temperatures damage engine materials and lubricants. Internal-combustion engines burn fuel hotter than the melting temperature of engine materials, and hot enough to set fire to lubricants. Engine cooling removes energy fast enough to keep temperatures low so the engine can survive.

Some high-efficiency engines and its car parts run without explicit cooling and with only accidental heat loss, a design called as adiabatic. For example like this10,000 mile-per-gallon "cars" for the Shell economy challenge are insulated, both to transfer as much energy as possible from hot gases to mechanical motion, and to reduce reheat losses when restarting. Such engines can achieve high efficiency but compromise power output, duty cycle, engine weight, durability, and emissions.

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Basic Principles

Most internal combustion engines are fluid cooled using either air (a gaseous fluid) or a liquid coolant run through a heat exchanger (radiator) cooled by air.. The water may be used directly to cool the engine, but often has sediment, which can clog coolant passages, or chemicals, such as salt, that can chemically damage the engine. Marine engines and some stationary engines have ready access to a large volume of water at a suitable temperature. So, engine coolant may be run through a heat exchanger that is cooled by the body of water.

There are many demands on a cooling system. One key is an engine fails if just one part overheats. Therefore, it is vital that the cooling system keep all parts at suitably low temperatures. Other demands include cost, weight, reliability, and durability of the cooling system itself.

Most liquid-cooled engines use a mixture of water and chemicals such as antifreeze and rust inhibitors. Some use no water at all, instead using a liquid with different properties, such as propylene glycol or a combination of propylene glycol and ethylene glycol. Most "air-cooled" engines use some liquid oil cooling, to maintain acceptable temperatures for both critical engine parts and the oil itself, Most "liquid-cooled" engines use some air cooling, with the intake stroke of air cooling the combustion chamber. An exception is Winkle engines, where some parts of the combustion chamber are never cooled by intake, requiring extra effort for successful operation.

Conductive heat transfer is proportional to the temperature difference between materials. If an engine metal is at 300 C and the air is at 0C, then there is a 300C temperature difference for cooling. An air-cooled engine uses all of this difference. In contrast, a liquid-cooled engine might dump heat from the engine to a liquid, heating the liquid to 150C which is then cooled with 0C air. In each step, the liquid-cooled engine has half the temperature difference and so at first appears to need twice the cooling area.

After all, properties of the coolant (water, oil, or air) also affect cooling. As for example like this, comparing water and oil as coolants, one gram of oil can absorb about 55% of the heat for the same rise in temperature. Oil has about 90% the density of water, so a given volume of oil can absorb only about 51% of the energy of the same volume of water. The thermal conductivity of water is about four times that of oil, which can aid heat transfer. The viscosity of oil can be ten times greater than water, increasing the energy required to pump oil for cooling, and reducing the net power output of the engine.
 

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