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Gear Box

Using the principle of mechanical advantage, transmissions provide a speed-torque conversion (commonly known as "gear reduction" or "speed reduction") from a high speed motor to a slower but more forced output or vice-versa.

Explanation

Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, milling, and hoisting.

Most modern gearboxes and other car parts either decrease an unsuitable high speed and low torque of the prime mover output shaft to a more stable lower speed with higher torque, or do the opposite and provide a mechanical advantage to allow higher forces to be generated. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the physical direction in which power is transmitted.

Many typical vechical transmissions include the ability to select one of several different gear ratios. In this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque. However, the highest gears may be "overdrive" types that increase the output speed.

Automotive basics

The need for a transmission in an automobile is a consequence of the characteristics of the internal combustion engine. Engines typically operate over a range of 600 to about 7000 revolutions per minute, while the car's wheels rotate between 0 rpm and around 1800 rpm.

In addition the engine provides its highest torque outputs approximately in the middle of its range, while often the greatest torque is required when the vehicle is moving from rest or traveling slowly. Therefore, a system that transforms the engine's output so that it can supply high torque at low speeds, but also operate at highway speeds with the motor still operating within its limits, is required. Transmissions perform this transformation.

Most transmissions and gears used in automotive and truck applications are contained in a cast iron case, though sometimes aluminium is used for lower weight.

The mainshaft extends outside the case in both directions: the input shaft towards the engine, and the output shaft towards the rear axle. The shaft is suspended by the main bearings, and is split towards the input end. At the point of the split, a pilot bearing holds the shafts together. The gears and clutches ride on the mainshaft, the gears being free to turn relative to the mainshaft except when engaged by the clutches.

Types of automobile transmissions include manual, automatic or semi-automatic transmission.

Multi-ratio systems

Many applications require the availability of multiple gear ratios. Often, this is to ease the starting and ending of a mechanical system, though another important need is that of maintaining good fuel economy.

Manual

Manual is also classified in two categories:

   1)A simple but rugged sliding-mesh or unsynchronized system, where straight-cut spur gear sets are spinning freely, and must be synchronized by the operator matching engine revs to road speed, to avoid noisy and damaging "gear clash",

   2) and the now common constant-mesh gearboxes which can include non-synchronised, or synchronized / synchromesh systems, where diagonal cut helical gear sets are constantly "meshed" together, and a dog clutch is used for changing gears. On synchromesh boxes, friction cones or "synchro-rings" are used in addition to the dog clutch.

The former type is commonly found in many forms of racing cars, older heavy-duty trucks, and some agricultural equipment.Manual transmissions dominate the car market outside of North America. They are cheaper, lighter, usually give better performance, and fuel efficiency. It is customary for new drivers to learn, and be tested, on a car with a manual gear change.

 In Malaysia, Denmark and Poland all cars used for testing  have a manual transmission. In Japan, the Philippines, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Austria, the UK, Ireland, Sweden, France, Switzerland, Australia, Finland and Lithuania , a test pass using an automatic car does not entitle the driver to use a manual car on the public road; a test with a manual car is required.[citation needed].

Manual transmissions are much more common than automatic transmissions in Asia, Africa, South America and Europe.

Uses

Transmissions are also used in agricultural, industrial, construction, mining and automotive car parts. Including ordinary transmission equipped with gears, such equipment makes extensive use of the hydrostatic drive and electrical adjustable-speed drives.

Non-synchronous

There are commercial applications engineered with designs taking into account that the gear shifting will be done by an experienced operator. They are a manual transmission, but are known as non-synchronized transmissions. Dependent on country of operation, many local, regional, and national laws govern the operation of these types of vehicles. This class may include commercial, military, agricultural, or engineering vehicles. Some of these may use combinations of different multi-purpose functions. An example would be a PTO, or power-take-off gear. The non-synchronous transmission type requires an understanding of gear range, torque, engine power, and multi-functional clutch and shifter functions. Also see Double-clutching, and Clutch-brake sections of the main article at non-synchronous transmissions.

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