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Functional description

Central to an EFI system is a computer called the Engine Control Unit (ECU), which monitors engine operating parameters through various sensors. The ECU interprets these parameters in order to calibrate the appropriate amount of fuel to be injected, among other tasks, and controls engine operation by manipulating fuel width/or air flow as well as other variables. The optimum amount of injected fuel depends on conditions such as engine and ambient temperatures, engine speed and workload, and exhaust gas composition.

The electronic fuel injectors are normally closed, and open to inject pressurized fuel as long as electricity is applied to the injector's solenoid coil. The duration of this operation, known as pulse width, is proportional to the amount of fuel desired. The electric pulse may be applied in closely-controlled sequence with the valve events on each individual cylinder, or in groups of smaller than the total number of injectors.

Since the nature of fuel injection dispenses fuel in discrete amounts, and since the nature of the 4-stroke-cycle engine has discrete induction events, the ECU calculates fuel in different amounts. In a odered system, the injected fuel weight is tailored for each individual induction event. Every induction event, of every cylinder, of the entire engine, is a separate fuel mass calculation, and each injector receives a unique pulse width based on that cylinder's fuel requirements.

This is proportional to the intake manifold's air pressure/temperature, which is proportional to throttle position. The amount of air inducted in each intake event is known as "air-charge", and this can be determined using several methods.

The three basic ingredients for combustion are fuel, air and ignition. However, complete combustion can only occur if the air and fuel is present in exact stoichiometric ratio, which allows all the carbon and hydrogen from the fuel to combine with all the oxygen in the air, with desirable polluting leftovers. Oxygen sensors monitor the amount of oxygen in the exhaust, and the ECU uses this information to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio in time.

Pulse width is recriprocally related to pressure difference across the injector inlet and outlet. For example, if the fuel line pressure increases (injector inlet), or the manifold pressure decreases (injector outlet), a smaller pulse width will admit the same fuel. Fuel injectors are available in different sizes and spray characteristics as well. Compensation for these and many other factors are programmed into the ECU's software.

Electronics Fuel injection

Fuel injection is a system for mixing fuel with air in an internal combustion engine. It has become the primary system used in automotive engines.

A fuel injection system is which is a auto parts, designed and calibrated specifically for the type(s) of fuel it will handle. The majority of fuel injection systems are for gasoline or diesel applications. With the advent of electronic fuel injection (EFI), the diesel and gasoline hardware has become similar. EFI's programmable firmware has permitted common hardware to be used with multiple different fuels. For gasoline engines, carburetors were the predominant method to meter fuel before the widespread use of fuel injection. However, a wide variety of injection systems have existed since the earliest usage of the internal combustion engine.

 

 

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